test case generation

Revisiting Test Smells in Automatically Generated Tests: Limitations, Pitfalls, and Opportunities

Test smells attempt to capture design issues in test code that reduce their maintainability. Previous work found such smells to be highly common in automatically generated test-cases, but based this result on specific static detection rules; although these are based on the original definition of “test smells”, a recent empirical study showed that developers perceive these as overly strict and non-representative of the maintainability and quality of test suites. This leads us to investigate how effective such test smell detection tools are on automatically generated test suites. In this paper, we build dataset of 2,340 test cases automatically generated by EVOSUITE for 100 Java classes. We performed a multi-stage, cross-validated manual analysis to identify six types of test smells and label their instances. We benchmark the performance of two test smell detection tools: one widely used in prior work, and one recently introduced with the express goal to match developer perceptions of test smells. Our results show that these test smell detection strategies poorly characterized the issues in automatically generated test suites; the older tool’s detection strategies, especially, misclassified over 70% of test smells, both missing real instances (false negatives) and marking many smell- free tests as smelly (false positives). We identify common patterns in these tests that can be used to improve the tools, refine and update the definition of certain test smells, and highlight as of yet uncharacterized issues. Our findings suggest the need for (i) more appropriate metrics to match development practice; and (ii) more accurate detection strategies, to be evaluated primarily in industrial contexts.

Good Things Come In Threes: Improving Search-based Crash Reproduction With Helper Objectives

Evolutionary intelligence approaches have been successfully applied to assist developers during debugging by generating a test case reproducing reported crashes. These approaches use a single fitness function called CrashFunction to guide the search process toward reproducing a target crash. Despite the reported achievements, these approaches do not always successfully reproduce some crashes due to a lack of test diversity (premature convergence). In this study, we introduce a new approach, called MO-HO, that addresses this issue via multi-objectivization. In particular, we introduce two new Helper-Objectives for crash reproduction, namely test length (to minimize) and method sequence diversity (to maximize), in addition to CrashFunction. We assessed MO-HO using five multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (NSGA-II, SPEA2, PESA-II, MOEA/D, FEMO) on 124 hard-to-reproduce crashes stemming from open-source projects. Our results indicate that SPEA2 is the best-performing multi-objective algorithm for MO-HO. We evaluated this best-performing algorithm for MO-HO against the state-of-the-art: single-objective approach (SGGA) and decomposition-based multi-objectivization approach (decomposition). Our results show that MO-HO reproduces five crashes that cannot be reproduced by the current state-of-the-art. Besides, MO-HO improves the effectiveness (+10% and +8% in reproduction ratio) and the efficiency in 34.6% and 36% of crashes (i.e., significantly lower running time) compared to SGGA and decomposition, respectively. For some crashes, the improvements are very large, being up to +93.3% for reproduction ratio and -92% for the required running time.

Generating Highly-structured Input Data by Combining Search-based Testing and Grammar-based Fuzzing

Software testing is an important and time-consuming task that is often done manually. In the last decades, researchers have come up with techniques to generate input data (e.g., fuzzing) and automate the process of generating test cases (e.g., search-based testing). However, these techniques are known to have their own limitations: search-based testing does not generate highly-structured data; grammar-based fuzzing does not generate test case structures. To address these limitations, we combine these two techniques. By applying grammar-based mutations to the input data gathered by the search-based testing algorithm, it allows us to co-evolve both aspects of test case generation. We evaluate our approach by performing an empirical study on 20 Java classes from the three most popular JSON parsers across multiple search budgets. Our results show that the proposed approach on average improves branch coverage for JSON related classes by 15% (with a maximum increase of 50%) without negatively impacting other classes.

Crash Reproduction Using Helper Objectives

Evolutionary-based crash reproduction techniques aid developers in their debugging practices by generating a test case that reproduces a crash given its stack trace. In these techniques, the search process is typically guided by a single search objective called Crash Distance. Previous studies have shown that current approaches could only reproduce a limited number of crashes due to a lack of diversity in the population during the search. In this study, we address this issue by applying Multi-Objectivization using Helper-Objectives (MO-HO) on crash reproduction. In particular, we add two helper-objectives to the Crash Distance to improve the diversity of the generated test cases and consequently enhance the guidance of the search process. We assessed MO-HO against the single-objective crash reproduction. Our results show that MO-HO can reproduce two additional crashes that were not previously reproducible by the single-objective approach.

EvoSuite at the SBST 2020 Tool Competition

EvoSuite is a search-based tool that automatically generates executable unit tests for Java code (JUnit tests). This paper summarizes the results and experiences of EvoSuite’s participation at the eighth unit testing competition at SBST 2020, where EvoSuite achieved the highest overall score (406.14 points) for the seventh time in eight editions of the competition.

Automated Test Generation for Unit Testing Beyond

Testing with Fewer Resources: An Adaptive Approach to Performance-Aware Test Case Generation

Abstract: Automated test case generation is an effective technique to yield high-coverage test suites. While the majority of research effort has been devoted to satisfying coverage criteria, a recent trend emerged towards optimizing other non-coverage aspects.


Test Case Generation for Class Integration Testing

A Large Scale Empirical Comparison of State-of-the-art Search-based Test Case Generators

Incremental Control Dependency Frontier Exploration for Many-Criteria Test Case Generation